Abbreviations

0-9  A-B

4P = Price, Product, Place and Promotion

7S = Strategy, Structure, Systems, Style, Staff, Skills, Shared values

a/c. = Account

A/C = Account Current

A/P = Accounts Payable

A/R = Accounts Receivable

AAA = American Accounting Association

AGM = Annual General Meeting

AGM = Assistant General Manager

AICTE = All India Council for Technical Education

AIDBs = All India Development Banks

AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

AIFIs = All India Financial Institutions

AOA = Articles of Association

APCERT = Asia Pacific CERT

APEC = Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation

API = Application Programming Interface

ARR = Accounting Rate of Return

ASEAN = Association of South East Asian Nations

ASN = Autonomous System Number

ASP = Application Service Provider

ATM = Automated Teller Machine

B2B = Business-to-business

B-C

B2C = Business to Consumer

B2G = Business-to-government

BD = Business Development

BEP = Break-even Point

BIOS = Basic Input Output System

BOE = Bill of Exchange

BOO = Build Own Operate

BOOT = Build, Own, Operate & Transfer

BOT = Build Operate Transfer

BPO = Business Process Outsourcing

BRM = Business Research Methodology

BRN = Business Resources Network

C2B = Consumer-to-business

C2H = Cinema To Home

CAO = Chief Accounting Officer

CAPM = Capital asset pricing model

CAPTCHA = Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart

CARE = Centre for Advanced Computing Research and Education

CBDT = Central Board of Direct Taxes

CBE = Certified Business Economist

CBER = Center for Business and Economic Research

CBSE = Central Board of Secondary Education

C

CCC = Cash conversion cycle

CEO = Chief Executive Officer

CFA = Chartered Financial Analyst

CFM = Certified Financial Manager

CFO = Chief Financial Officer

CIMA = Chartered Institute of Management Accountants

CMO = Chief Marketing Officer

CMS = Content Management System

COC = Cost of Capital

COCO = Company Owned Company Operated

COD = Cash on Delivery

COO = Chief Operating Officer

Corp. = Corporation

CPA = Certified Public Accountant

CPA = Consumer Protection Act

CPA = cost per acquisition

CPA = Certified Public Accountant

CPC = Cost per click

CPI = Consumer Price Index

CPWD = Central Public Works Department

CRM = Customer Relationship Management

CSIRO = Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organization

CSR = Corporate social responsibility


C-D-E

CTA = Call to Action

CVP = Cost Volume Profit

DDA = Depletion Depreciation Amortization

DEA = Department of Economic Affairs

dept. = Department

DICGC = Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation

DIY = Do it yourself

DNS = Domain Name System

DOS = Disk operating system

DoS = Denial-of-service

DPR = Detailed Project Report

DR = Depositary receipt

DRDO = Defence Research and Development Organization

DSP = Delivery service provider

EBIT = Earnings before interest and taxes

ECGC = Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India

EDI = Electronic Data Interchange

EFT =        Electronic Funds Transfer

EMD = Earnest Money Deposit

EMI = Equated Monthly Installment

EMS = Enterprise Management System

EOU = Export Oriented Unit

EPC = Export Promotion Council

E-F

EPGC = Export Promotion Capital Good

EPROM = Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

EPS = Earnings per share

EPZ = Export Processing Zone

ERP = Enterprise Resource Planning

ESOP = Employee stock ownership plan

ETA = Estimated Time of Arrival

ETD = Estimated Time of Delivery

EU = European Union

EVP = Executive Vice President

FAQ = Frequently asked questions

FIFO = First In, First Out

FIPB = Foreign Investment Promotion Board

FL = Financial leverage

FM = Financial Management

FMCG = Fast Moving Consumer Goods

FOB = Freight On Board

FDA = Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act

FCN = Foreign Currency Non-Resident (Bank accounts)

FSSAI = Food Safety and Standards Authority of India

FTM = Fast Track Mechanism

FTP = File Transfer Protocol

FTTH = Fiber To The Home

G-H

G2B = Government-to-Business

G2C = Government to Consumer

G2C = Government-to-Citizen

G2E = Government-to-Employees

GAAP = Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

GAAS = Generally Accepted Audit Standards

GAIL = Gas authority of India Limited

GDP = Gross Domestic Product

GDR = Global depository receipt

GE = Global Economy

GIC = General Insurance Corporation of India

GPRS = General Packet Radio Service

GPS = Global Positioning System

GSM = Global System for Mobile Communication

HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HNI = High Net-worth Individual

HQ = Headquarters

HR = Human Resource

HRD = Human Resource Development

HRM = Human Resource Management

HRP = Human Resource Planning

HTML = Hypertext Markup Language

HTTP = Hyper Text Transport Protocol

HUF = Hindu Undivided Family


I

IAS = Indian Administrative services

IAS = International Accounting Standards

IC = Integrated circuits

ICANN = Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

ICICI = Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited

ICRA = Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency

IDBI = Industrial Development Bank of India

IFCI = Industrial Financial Corporation of India Limited

IIBI = Industrial Investment Bank of India Limited

IMF = International Monetary Fund

Inc. = Incorporated

IP = Internet Protocol

IPO = Initial Public Offering

IPR = Intellectual Property rights

IR = Interest Rate

IRBI = Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India

IRCI = Industrial Reconstruction Corporation of India Limited

IRCTC = Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation

J-K-L-M

IRR = Internal Rate of Return

ISBN = International Standard Book Number

ISO = International Standards Organization

ISP = Internet Service Provider

ISRO = Indian Space Research Organization

JIS = Just in sequence

JIT = Just in time

KPI = Key Performance Indicators

KPO = Knowledge Process Outsourcing

KYC = Know Your Customer

LAN = Local Area Network

LBO = Limited Buyout

LC = Letter of Credit

LIC = Life Insurance Corporation of India

LIFO = Last In, First Out

LLC = Limited Liability Company

Ltd. = Limited Company

MAN = Metropolitan area network

MBE = Management By Exception

MBO = Management By Objective

MD = Managing Director

MEA = Ministry of External Affairs

MGMT = Management

M-N

MHA = Ministry of Home Affairs

MIS = Management Information System

MODEM = Modulator Demodulator

MOQ = Minimum Order Quantity

MOS = Margin of Safety

MOU = Memorandum Of Understanding

MP = Manpower Planning

MPC = marginal propensity to consume

MRO = Maintenance, Repair, and Operations

MRP = Maximum Retail Price

MSRP = Manufacturer’s suggested retail price

NABARD = National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development

NASDAQ = National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System

NASSCOM = National Association of Software and Services company

NAV = Net asset value

NDA = Non-Disclosure Agreement

NEP = New Economic Policy

NGO = Non-government organization

NHB = National Housing Bank

NII = Net Interest Income

NIM = Net Interest Margin


N-O

NOA = Net Operating Assets

NOC = No objection certificate

NOI = Net Operating Income

NOPAT = Net Operating Profit After Tax

NPA = Net Performing Assets

NPV = Net Present Value

NRI = Non –resident Indian

NSC = National Savings Certificate

NSIC = National Small Industries Corporation

NTPC = National Thermal Power Corporation

OB = Organizational Behaviour

OBC = Other Backward Classes

OC = Opportunity Cost

OCF = Operating cash flow

OCR = Optical Character Recognition

OEM = Original Equipment Manufacturer

ONGC = Oil and Natural Gas Commission

OOH = Out of Home

OTS = One Time Settlement

P

P&L = Profit and Loss

PE = Price-to-earnings ratio

P2P = Peer to Peer

PA = Personal Assistant

PAN = Permanent Account Number

PAQ = Position Analysis Questionnaire

PAT = Profit After Tax

PBC = Performance Based Compensation

PBT = Profit Before Tax

PDA = Personal Digital Assistant

PDF = Portable Document Format

PEG = Price-to-earnings growth ratio

PF = Provident Fund

PIL = Public Interest Litigation

PIN = Postal Index Number

POP =       Point of Presence

POP = Point of Purchase

POS = Point of Sale

POSM = Point of Sales Material

P-R

PPP = Public-private partnership

PPP = Purchasing power parity

PPP = Point to Point Protocol

PR = Public Relations

PSU = Public Sector Unit

PSU = Public Sector Undertaking

PWD = Public Works Department

R&D = Research and Development

RAM = Random Access Memory

RCI = Refinance Corporation for Industry

RE = Retained Earnings

RFP = Request for Proposals

ROA = Return on assets

ROCE = Return On Capital Employed

ROE = Return on Equity

ROI = Rate of Interest

ROI = Return on Investment

ROIC = Return on Invested Capital

RONA = Return on net assets


R-S

ROS = Return on Sales

RRP = Recommended retail price

RSP = Retail selling price

SAARC = South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

SaaS = Software As A Service

SAIL = Steel Authority of India Limited

SBU = Strategic Business Unit

SCBA = Social Cost Benefit Analysis

SCM = Supply Chain Management

SEBI = Securities and Exchange Board of India

SEC = Securities and Exchange Commission

Sensex = Sensitive Index

SEO = Search engine optimization

SFIs = Specialized Financial Institutions

SG&A = Sales, General, and Administrative expenses

SIDBI = Small Industries Development Bank of India

SIDC = State Industrial Development Corporation

SME = Small and Medium Enterprises

SMTP = Simple mail transfer protocol

SOBO       = Small Office Business Office

SOHO = Small Office/Home Office

SRAM = Static Random Access Memory

SSIDC = State Small Industries Development Corporation

SSIs = Small Scale Industries Sector

SSL = Secure Socket Layer

SVP = Senior Vice President

T-U-V-W

TCP = Transmission Control Protocol

TQM = Total Quality Management

UGC = University Grants Commission

UIDAI = Unique Identification Authority of India

UNESCAP = United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

UNESCO = United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNICIF = United Nations Children`s Fund

URL = Uniform Resource Locator

USP = Unique Selling Point

UTI = Unit Trust of India

VAS = Value Added Services

VAT = Value Added Tax

VC = Venture Capital

VP = Vice President

VPN = Virtual private network

VRS = Voluntary Retirement Scheme

w.r.t = With Respect To

WACC = Weighted average cost of capital

WAN = Wide Area Network

WC = Working Capital

WCM = Working Capital Management

WHO = World Health Organization

Wifi = Wireless Fidelity

WPM = Workers Participation in Management

WTO = World Trade Organization

WWW = World Wide Web

WYSIWYG = What you see is what you get

X-Z

XML = Extensible Mark-up Language

ZBB = Zero Based Budgeting