Inflation Accounting – Meaning, Techniques – Short Note

Inflation accounting refers to the process of adjusting the financial statements of a company to show the real financial position of the company during inflationary period. It is a special accounting technique that is used during the period of high inflation. It requires adjustments in financial statements of a company according to current price index prevalent in the economy. The […]

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Control, Controlling – Process, Techniques, Importance

Controlling is the process through which managers regulate the operations of an organization to ensure achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Control is simply making things happen in the way it was planned. Control refers to the comparison of actual performance of a task with the previously established standards or benchmarks, for the purpose of finding out deviations in performance and […]

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DAGMAR Approach for Setting Advertising Objectives

DAGMAR Approach is a model developed by Russell H Colley for setting advertising objectives and measuring the results for an advertising campaign. Colley prepared a report for the association of national advertisers titled “Defined Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results” which stressed on communication effects of advertising as the logical basis for setting advertising goals and objectives against which results […]

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Communication Barriers – Overcoming communication barriers

Communication Barriers refers to any interference, gap, distortion that may prevent the communicating parties to interact and understand each other effectively. Communication barriers may be in form of a physical walls, technical glitches, organizational policies or psychological issues. Communication is an art which gets better with practice. It requires a lot of conscious effort to understand the manner in which […]

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Types of Communication – Upward, Downward & Horizontal

Organizations survive on communications, communication in an organizations may be multi-dimensional or multi-directional. Right set of communication at the right time from the right desk spreads positive vibes across the organization. Understanding of different types of communication helps to determine the direction of communication. Formal Communication in organizations is highly structured and work within a set of disciplines. Communication may […]

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Formal and Informal Communication Channels

Channel of Communication refers to the means through which a message is communicated. A communication may pass through various points or positions in an organization. Depending upon the means, structure and nature of communication, channels can be categorized into formal and informal communication channels. Irrespective of the mode of communication, people can communicate in a formal or informal manner. Formal […]

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Non Verbal Communication – Sign, Body, Para Language

Non verbal communication refers to the communication that makes use of sign language and body language understood by both the parties to communicate a message. Sign Language can be further divided into Visual Signals and Audio Signals. However, apart from body and sign language, the voice of the communicator, the environment, surroundings, colours, timing of the message communicated plays a […]

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Written Communication – Advantages, Disadvantages, Tips

Written Communication is another category of verbal communication apart from oral communication. It involves communication of a message through written words and symbols. While oral communication comes as a natural process to humans, written communication requires a lot of practice and effort.   Characteristics of Written Communication One of the striking characteristics of Written Communication is that it is short […]

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