Micro Economics – Introduction Notes

Micro Economics is a branch of economic analysis that studies the economic behaviour of an individual unit, it may be a person, household or a firm. Managerial Economics refers to integration of economic theory with business practices and application of economic tools for management of a business. According to Spencer and Siegelman, “Micro Economics is the integration of economic theory […]

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Economic Effects of Taxation – Short Notes

The economic effects of taxation can be studied under heads. They are: Production Distribution Inflation Depression Consumption Employment According to Dalton, “The best taxation from economic point of view is that which has best or the least bad economic effects” While the classical economists considered tax as a source of revenue only, modern economists regarded it as an important tool […]

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Incidence, Impact and Shifting of Tax

Incidence of tax refers to the final resting place of tax payment. It is concerned with the analysis to determine on whom the money burden falls or rests. The person who directly pays the tax to the government, feels the impact of tax.  Hence, impact of tax is concerned with the immediate effect of imposition of tax while incidence of […]

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Performance Budgeting – Features, Process, Advantages, Limitations

Performance Budgeting refers to a budget in terms of functions, programmes and performance units (functions, activities and projects) reflecting the revenues and expenditures of an Organization or Government.  Performance Budgeting refers to a budget in terms of functions, programmes and performance units (functions, activities and projects) reflecting the revenues and expenditures of an Organization or Government.   Features of Performance […]

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Deficit Financing – Meaning, Objectives, Techniques

Meaning of Deficit Financing Deficit Financing may be simply defined as the excess of expenditure over and above the total income of the Government. The term “Budgetary deficit” can be defined in two ways. – One from the perspective of advanced countries like USA – Budgetary deficit is the loan financing of all excess government expenditure over its revenue. Developing countries like […]

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Taxation – Introduction, Characteristics, Objectives, Kinds, Types

Taxation refers to the act of levying taxes on the citizens of a country through a well-defined tax structure developed by the government of the country. A Tax is a compulsory payment made by the citizens of a country to the government to meet expenditures of public authorities and for the common welfare of all, without any expectations of any specified […]

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Canons of Taxation – Fundamental and Other Canons of Tax

Canons of Taxation are the fundamental principles of taxation which are used to create an effective taxation system in a country. Canons are basically characteristics of a good taxation system. A government must incorporate these canons of taxation when developing a tax structure & system in order to make the same more efficient and effective.  Fundamental Canons of Taxation The […]

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Changing Consumer Behaviour in India

As India continues to evolve as an economic power in the global scenario, Consumerism is undergoing tremendous changes in the business arena. Liberalization, Globalization and Increasing income and purchasing power among the people of India can be attributed as the main reasons for the prevalent market trend and changing consumer behaviour in India. The affluence levels have exerted tremendous influence […]

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Self Development & Communication – Business communication

Self Development is a never ending process. It is an ongoing activity and a lack of focus on personal development activities makes people stagnate in their life. Communication acts as a major factor contributing to one’s development in a crucial manner. Without advancement in communication skills, knowledge enhancement remains an untapped resource. What is Self Development Self Development is a […]

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Global Subprime Crisis Impact on India

Global Subprime Crisis emerged in the US housing mortgage market in the year 2007 and gradually snowballed into a global financial crisis, leading to a global economic recession. The transmission of shocks of the crisis was mainly in two phases. First, it started with Inflation and then led to global financial crisis. There was a simultaneous increase in food and commodity […]

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