Job Design & techniques of Job Designing
Job design is the organization of tasks, duties and responsibilities of human resources in an organization. The main focus is on allocation and distribution of duties, authority and responsibilities to a job in an organization.
Job designing involves careful analysis of the mental capacity, efficiency and motivation of a worker and the working standards/procedure used by a worker in performance of his/her job.
It involves the study of:
- Skills required to perform a job successfully
- Type, Length and Difficulty of Tasks related to a job
- Degree to which the job impacts other internal and external aspects of the organization
- Degree of freedom/restriction and extent of responsibilities related to a job
- Degree to which job itself explains its objectives and provides satisfaction to the employee.
A careful analysis of these factors is necessary to design a job effectively.
Techniques of Job Design
(1) Job Enlargement – Job Enlargement involves expansion of a job horizontally in an organization. It increases the scope, tasks and duties of an employee related to a job, to provide diversity in operations and encourage people with specialized jobs.
(2) Job Simplification – It involves simplification of a job. In order to do so jobs are divided into smaller and subsequent tasks and assigned to employees as full-time jobs. Breaking down jobs into simple tasks helps employees to learn tasks quickly and enables shorter work cycles which require little to no effort. This allows a company to hire low-skilled and untrained workers at standard rates and helps in replacing employees easily.
(3) Job Enrichment – It involves provision of opportunities for achievement, recognition, advancement, authority and growth to employees in relation to their job, in order to motivate them to perform better and develop a positive attitude. Employees are subjected to challenging projects and tasks in order to build personal and professional growth and provide job satisfaction to workers.
(4) Job Rotation – It involves movement of an employee from one job to another within the organization. Job rotation relives the employees from monotony and freedom and enhances the versatility of the employee.