Training – It is referred to as teaching specific skills and behaviour to employees for effective performance of their task.
It is the process by which the employees are taught skills and given the necessary knowledge to carry out their responsibilities according to the desired standards.
A Systematic Approach to Training
- Assessment – Determine training needs, Identify training objectives
- Implementation – Select training methods, Conduct Training
- Evaluation – Measure outcomes
Objectives/Purpose of Training –
- To train new recruits
- To enhance the skills, knowledge and abilities of existing employees
- To keep the organization updated with the changing working standards
- To tackle the strategy of competitors
- To motivate employees and keep them satisfied
- Preparing the employees for future jobs, special events, new projects, technical advancements etc.
Training V/s Development
|It is meant for operatives||It is meant for managers|
|It aims to improve a specific skill relating to a job||It aims to improve to overall ability and personality of an individual|
|It is a one-time process||It is an on-going and continuous process|
|It meets the needs of current requirements of a job||It meets the future needs of the job and the individual|
|Reactive process||Proactive process|
|It focuses is on individual employees||It focuses on an entire workgroup or management of an organization|
|It is a result of outside motivation||It is a result of internal motivation|
Training Methods –
They can be classified on the basis of the location where the instruction/training is provided into –
- On the Job Methods – Training is provided at the actual workplace of the employee/trainee
- Off the Job Methods – Training is provided at a place other than the actual workplace of the employee. The trainee is separated from his current job location and complete focus is on learning skills related to his future job performance.
On the Job Training Methods –
(1) Job instruction Training (JIT) – It is a four step instructional process involving preparation, presentation, performance and follow-up. It is used to teach workers how to do their current job. The four steps of JIT are as follows –
- Demonstration – The trainer demonstrates the right way to do the job
- Overview – Educate trainee about the purpose and outcomes of the job
- Performance – The trainee is asked to copy the trainer and perform the task independently with little guidance
- Follow-up- The trainer checks the trainee`s performance to determine whether he/she is ready for the job
(2) Coaching – It refers to an informal, unplanned training provided by superiors or peers to an employee. It involves daily feedback and training of employees by their immediate supervisors. Supervisors or peers carry out the following activities in order to train the employee.
- Explain him the right way of doing things
- Explaining the do`s and don’ts of the job
- Stating observations accurately about employee performance
- Offering alternative/suggestions
- Follow up
(3) Mentoring – It is a relationship in which a senior manager assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior manager. Technical, interpersonal and political skills are conveyed by an experienced person to help the trainee attain psychological maturity and get integrated with the organization. The main focus of a mentor is on career advancement and psychological maturity of the trainee. Therefore the mentor carries out the following functions –
- Career functions – Those aspects of the relationship that enhance career advancement. Eg: Sponsorship, Exposure and visibility, Coaching, Protection, Challenging assignments
- Psychological functions – Those aspects that enhance trainee`s sense of competence. Eg: Role modelling, Acceptance and Assurance, Counselling, Friendship
(4) Job Rotation – It involves movement of employees from one job to another within an organization. The purpose of job rotation is to provide employees with a larger organization perspective and better understanding of different functional areas. It relives employees of boredom and provides flexibility in the organization.
(5) Apprenticeship Training – Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer. It demands high level of participation from the trainee. Such form of training is called Apprenticeship training. Internships and summer training are similar to Apprenticeship.
(6) Committee Assignments – In this method the trainees are asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees have to work together and offer a solution to the problem. It gives a broadening experience and helps to understand the personalities, issues and processes governing the organization.
Off the Job Training Methods –
(1) Vestibule training – Under this method the actual work conditions are stipulated in a classroom and the actual material, files and equipment used in the actual job are used in teaching the employee. It is commonly used for semi-skilled and clerical jobs.
(2) Role Playing – It involves action, doing and practice of human interactions with realistic behaviour in imaginary situations.
(3) Lecture method – It is a traditional and direct method of providing training. The instructor organizes all the material and provides instructions to a group of trainees in form of oral lectures.
(4) Conference/Discussion method – In this method the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion in order to clear his/her doubts about the job. Trainers may use audio-visual aids like presentations, mock-ups and videos to train the employees. It is a group centred approach involving clarification of doubts, communication of ideas, standards and procedures between the trainer and trainee.
(5) Programmed Instructions – In this method the subject matter to be taught is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential instructions and tasks. These instruction and tasks are arranged from simple to more complex level of instructions which are to be performed by the trainees step by step.
(6) Virtual Classroom and E-Learning – A virtual classroom makes use of special enterprise collaboration software and online learning management systems to enable multiple remote learners to participate in a live audio-visual discussion and lectures. Trainee`s communicate via text or voice online and learn via content provided online in form of videos, e-books, presentations etc.
E-learning methods include instructions delivered through Optical disks, pen drives, internet, satellite broadcasts or digital collaborations between partners willing to learn from each other.
(7) Behaviourally experienced training – These programs focus on emotional and behavioural learning. It includes activities like business games, case studies, role playing, group discussions, sensitivity and laboratory training.